There are three important institutions in the Pukhtoon community where a male Pukhtoon child gets an education, The Mosque is for receiving religious education. The school is for receiving worldly education. The Hujra is for learning about the Pukhtoon code of life, called Azizwali / Pukhtoonwali. The Hujra is asimilar to a present day community centre. All of these….


Historically people of unique characteristics, Pukhtoon societies, have held the concept of Jirga quite sacred to them and allowed this institution to rule them throughout their known histories. To a common person, Jirga is a body comprising of local elderly and influential in Pukhtoon communities who undertake dispute resolution mostly through the process…….


As Leo Tolstoy very rightly said that, “the seed of every crime are in each of us.” Crime is not an out-side phenomena, it lives with each individual’s inner self and depending on the opportunities available, it can come out. “Power corrupts” and “the needy are not respectable” are some of the notions used by both the weaker and stronger communities to legitimize………

Alternative Dispute Resolution
Alternative Dispute Resolution​

 In the present world scenario where conflict has transformed from inter to intra state, an indigenous system for peace building is the only tool for durable peace. It is a well-understood fact that no system of governance in the world is perfect. While government institutions are there to provide effective security and access to justice many petty issues not …..

Restorative Justice System
Restorative Justice System​

“Restorative justice is a process to involve all possible stakeholders in a specific offense so that they can collectively identify and address harms, needs, and obligations, in order to heal and put things as right as possible”.

“Rather than obsessing about whether ‘offenders’……